Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution #conquestofdough #SameoldNeo-Liberal-Tories #Corbyn4PM #Whyarewehere ?

pierce 3 forces.jpgWatching the Excellent Documentary Why are we here I was very much taken by the interview with Mathematical Biologist. Martin Andreas Nowak (born April 7, 1965) is the Professor of Biology and Mathematics and Director of the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics at Harvard University.

 

THE MATHEMATICS OF COOPERATION

MN: So here we have a sea of co-operators in blue and a single defector.
David: Tell me what you mean by co-operator and defector.
MN: A co-operator is somebody who pays a cost to help somebody else. So, for example, I pay a certain cost and you have a benefit. That’s cooperation.
David: Okay.
MN: And a defector does not do that. A defector does nothing: does not pay the cost, refuses to pay the cost, but also does not distribute benefit.
Ard: The defector’s selfish.
David: Is it selfish?
MN: Defectors are selfish and the co-operator does something very strange. The co-operator…
David: More generous?
MN: They’re generous, but kind of generous to a competitor, because everybody here is a competitor to everybody else. And the co-operator helps a competitor. It reduces its own potential in order to augment the potential of somebody else.
David: Which you wouldn’t expect natural selection to allow.
MN: Yes, natural selection should basically make sure those co-operators who do this strange thing, they get wiped out.
David: Yeah.
MN: We would expect them to get wiped out. Okay.

David: So what happens?

If you click on the title to the snippet of transcripted dialogue from Why are we here? you will find the Interview and explanation of Martin Novack’s cooperative computer model. Here is his presentation fo the same modelling at the Cambridge Science festival in 2013. (I use this only as it is embeddable and the wonderful website and Vimeo videos of the Why are we here series are not embeddable.
As I watched this episode with my partner I remarked that it reminded me strongly of the argument put by Peter Kropotkin in Mutal Aid.

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

Peter Kropotkin
1902

INTRODUCTION

 

Consequently, when my attention was drawn, later on, to the relations between Darwinism and Sociology, I could agree with none of the works and pamphlets that had been written upon this important subject. They all endeavoured to prove that Man, owing to his higher intelligence and knowledge, may mitigate the harshness of the struggle for life between men; but they all recognized at the same time that the struggle for the means of existence, of every animal against all its congeners, and of every man against all other men, was “a law of Nature.” This view, however, I could not accept, because I was persuaded that to admit a pitiless inner war for life within each species, and to see in that war a condition of progress, was to admit something which not only had not yet been proved, but also lacked confirmation from direct observation.
After having discussed the importance of mutual aid in various classes of animals, I was evidently bound to discuss the importance of the same factor in the evolution of Man. This was the more necessary as there are a number of evolutionists who may not refuse to admit the importance of mutual aid among animals, but who, like Herbert Spencer, will refuse to admit it for Man. For primitive Man — they maintain — war of each against all was the law of life. In how far this assertion, which has been too willingly repeated, without sufficient criticism, since the times of Hobbes, is supported by what we know about the early phases of human development, is discussed in the chapters given to the Savages and the Barbarians.
Of works dealing with nearly the same subject, which have been published since the publication of my articles on Mutual Aid among Animals, I must mention The Lowell Lectures on the Ascent of Man, by Henry Drummond (London, 1894), and The Origin and Growth of the Moral Instinct, by A. Sutherland (London, 1898). Both are constructed chiefly on the lines taken in Büchner’s Love, and in the second work the parental and familial feeling as the sole influence at work in the development of the moral feelings has been dealt with at some length. A third work dealing with man and written on similar lines is The Principles of Sociology, by Prof. F.A. Giddings, the first edition of which was published in 1896 at New York and London, and the leading ideas of which were sketched by the author in a pamphlet in 1894. I must leave, however, to literary critics the task of discussing the points of contact, resemblance, or divergence between these works and mine.

 

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

Peter Kropotkin
1902

CONCLUSION

 As to the sudden industrial progress which has been achieved during our own century, and which is usually ascribed to the triumph of individualism and competition, it certainly has a much deeper origin than that. Once the great discoveries of the fifteenth century were made, especially that of the pressure of the atmosphere, supported by a series of advances in natural philosophy — and they were made under the medieval city organization, — once these discoveries were made, the invention of the steam-motor, and all the revolution which the conquest of a new power implied, had necessarily to follow. If the medieval cities had lived to bring their discoveries to that point, the ethical consequences of the revolution effected by steam might have been different; but the same revolution in technics and science would have inevitably taken place. It remains, indeed, an open question whether the general decay of industries which followed the ruin of the free cities, and was especially noticeable in the first part of the eighteenth century, did not considerably retard the appearance of the steam-engine as well as the consequent revolution in arts. When we consider the astounding rapidity of industrial progress from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries — in weaving, working of metals, architecture and navigation, and ponder over the scientific discoveries which that industrial progress led to at the end of the fifteenth century — we must ask ourselves whether mankind was not delayed in its taking full advantage of these conquests when a general depression of arts and industries took place in Europe after the decay of medieval civilization. 

 

With regard to the above-mentioned work by E. Martin-Saint-Léon, let me add that it contains very valuable information concerning the organization of the trades in Paris — as it appears from the Livre des métiers of Boileau — and a good summary of information relative to the Communes of different parts of France, with all bibliographical indications. It must, however, be remembered that Paris was a “Royal city” (like Moscow, or Westminster), and that consequently the free medieval-city institutions have never attained there the development which they have attained in free cities. Far from representing “the picture of a typical corporation,” the corporations of Paris, “born and developed under the direct tutorship of royalty,” for this very same cause (which the author considers a cause of superiority , while it was a cause of inferiority — he himself fully shows in different parts of his work how the interference of the imperial power in Rome, and of the royal power in France, destroyed and paralyzed the life of the craft-guilds) could never attain the wonderful growth and influence upon all the life of the city which they did attain in North-Eastern France, at Lyons, Montpellier, Nimes, etc., or in the free cities of Italy, Flanders, Germany, and so on. 


Taken together I find these arguments very persuasive with respect to models of Political Economy and the notion of Market systems within which Symbiosis is as important as Competition. As with all things we find success and progress where we find a balance and pragmatic thinking and not dogmatic ideological boundaries.

I wrote an essay when I watched the introductory Films the Why are we here? Series, it was more around the philosophical ideas and beliefs which I have cleaved to and hewn from my own readings writings and listenings these past 52 years on this Good and beautiful earth.

http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2017/01/why-are-we-here-essay-provoked-by-golem.html

CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE: ´´In order to reason well …. it is absolutely necessary to possess … such virtuesas intellectual honesty and sincerity and a real love of truth (2.82). The cause [of the success of scientificinquirers] has been that the motive which has carried them to the laboratory and the field has been a craving to know how things really were … (1-34).[Genuine inquiry consists I in the diligent inquiry into truth for truth’s sake(1.44), … in actually drawing the bow upon truth with intentness in the eye, with energy in the arm (1.235). [When] it is no longer the reasoning which determines what the conclusion shall be, but … the conclusion which determines what the reasoning shall be … this is sham reasoning…. The effect of this shamming is that men come to look upon reasoning as mainly decorative…´´. http://web.ncf.ca/ag659/308/Peirce-Rorty-Haack.pdfPierces seminal essay How to make our ideas clear is also a great starting off point for embracing such truth as we might be fortunate enough to encounter in our allotted time on this blue marble suspended in eternity.http://www.peirce.org/writings/p119.html

 

“Three modes of evolution have thus been brought before us: evolution by fortuitous variation, evolution by mechanical necessity, and evolution by creative love. We may term them tychastic evolution, or tychasmanancastic evolution, or anancasm, and agapasticevolution, or agapasm. The doctrines which represent these as severally of principal importance we may term tychasticismanancasticism,and agapasticism. On the other hand the mere propositions that absolute chance, mechanical necessity, and the law of love are severally operative in the cosmos may receive the names of tychismanancism, and agapism.” — C. S. Peirce, 1893[2]


With respect to Political Economy we might consult Peter Kropotkin’s other master piece, The Conquest of Bread.

The Conquest of Bread (FrenchLa Conquête du PainRussianХлеб и воля) is a book by the anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin. Originally written in French, it first appeared as a series of articles in the anarchist journals Le Révolté and La Révolte (both edited by Kropotkin). It was first published as a book in Paris in 1892 with a preface by Élisée Reclus, who also suggested the title. Between 1892 and 1894 it was serialised, in part, in the London journal Freedom, of which Kropotkin was a co-founder. It has been translated and reprinted numerous times: it was translated into Norwegian already in 1898, and in Japanese, for example, by Kotoku Shusui in 1909.
In this work, Kropotkin points out what he considers to be the defects of the economic systems of feudalism and capitalism, and how he believes they thrive on and maintain poverty and scarcity, as symbol for richness and in spite of being in a time of abundance thanks to technology, while promoting privilege. He goes on to propose a more decentralised economic system based on mutual aid and voluntary cooperation, asserting that the tendencies for this kind of organisation already exist, both in evolution and in human society. He also talks about details of revolution and expropriation in order not to end in a reactionary way.

THE CONQUEST OF BREAD

by P. Kropotkin


CHAPTER VIII

Ways and Means

I

The evil of the present system is therefore not that the “surplus-value” of production goes to the capitalist, as Rodbertus and Marx said, thus narrowing the Socialist conception and the general view of the capitalist system; the surplus-value itself is but a consequence of deeper causes. The evil lies in the possibility of a surplus-value existing, instead of a simple surplus not consumed by each generation; for, that a surplus-value should exist, means that men, women, and children are compelled by hunger to sell their labour for a small part of what this labour produces, and, above all, of what their labour is capable of producing. But this evil will last as long as the instruments of production belong to a few. As long as men are compelled to pay tribute to property holders for the right of cultivating land or putting machinery into action, and the property holder is free to produce what bids fair to bring him in the greatest profits, rather than the greatest amount of useful commodities–well-being can only be temporarily guaranteed to a very few, and is only to be bought by the poverty of a section of society. It is not sufficient to distribute the profits realized by a trade in equal parts, if at the same time thousands of other workers are exploited. It is a case of PRODUCING THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF GOODS NECESSARY TO THE WELL-BEING OF ALL, WITH THE LEAST POSSIBLE WASTE OF HUMAN ENERGY.

Kropotkin proposes his own solutions and Bakunin and Proudhon both bear close study as well.
Kropotkin’s entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica regarding Proudhon’s proposed Monetary system without Usury, is as good a summary of the remedy of poverty begot by Henry Georges Progress.

 

This is for me the nub of the matter something I have in common with Joseph Prouhdon, explained by Peter Kropotkin in the Encyclopedia Britannica thus.

https://archive.org/stream/…

”Now Proudhon advocated a society without government and
used the word Anarchy to describe it. Proudhon repudiated,
as is known, all schemes of Communism, according to which
mankind would be driven into communistic monasteries or
barracks, as also all the schemes of state or state-aided Socialism
which were advocated by Louis Blanc and the Collectivists. When
he proclaimed in his first memoir on property that ” Property
is theft,” he meant only property in its present, Roman-law,
sense of ” right of use and abuse ” ; in property-rights, on the other
hand, understood in the limited sense of possession, he saw the
best protection against the encroachments of the state. At the
same time, he did not want violently to dispossess the present
owners of land, dwelling-houses, mines, factories and so on. He
preferred to attain the same end by rendering capital incapable
of earning interest; and this he proposed to obtain by means of
a national bank, based on the mutual confidence of all those who
are engaged in production, who would agree to exchange among
themselves their produces at cost-value, by means of labour-cheques
Every one representing the hours of labour required to produce
every given commodity. Under such a system, which Proudhon
described as ” Mutuellisme,” all the exchanges of services would be
strictly equivalent. Besides, such a bank would be enabled to
lend money without interest, levying only something like 1 %,
or even less, for covering the cost of adminisEveryone
being thus enabled to borrow the money that would be required
to buy a house, nobody would agree to pay any more a yearly
rent for the use of it. A general ” social liquidation ” would
thus be rendered easy, without violent expropriation. The same
applied to mines, railways, factories and so on. ”

http://www.lietaer.com/images/Integral_Money.pdf


Bernard Lietaer – Financial Democracy – The ultimate solution against the Cabal


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http://www.kosmosjournal.org/wp-content/article-pdfs/the-commons-and-integral-capital.pdf

KICK NEO-LIBERALISM INTO TOUCH. #CORBYN4PM THE ARGUMENT FROM POLITICAL ECONOMY AND HISTORY. #GE2017

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KICK NEO-LIBERALISM INTO TOUCH. #CORBYN4PM THE ARGUMENT FROM POLITICAL ECONOMY AND HISTORY. #GE2017

 

A WELL HUNG PARLIAMENT SIGNIFIES VIRILE DEMOCRACY.

 

 

Reject to the narrative of smaller parties holding the government to ransom, Democracy is not about Winner takes all, stuff everyone else once the bidding is over. Democracy should be a consultative inclusive process sensitive to all needs and wants across the whole spectrum of society, cultural, political and Economic. It is non-sensical in a functioning democracy to claim that minority views should not be heard where a case is made. Is it a democracy where a minority voice is able to be ignored? Many minority and yet Right minded voices have been ignored and taken for granted for far too long in British policies a hung parliament with a Coalition or more informal supply and support arrangement is precisely what British Democracy needs. Balance is the key to life itself and no less in political life where power should be balanced by accountability and alternative voices with access to full checks and balances against excessive lurches in favour of special interest groups. So go ahead and vote for what you believe in and if that delivers a Hung Parliament so much the better. A well-hung parliament signifies virile democracy.

Policies photo policies.jpgSee what your real voting intentions would be absent the spin and nonsense Click link to take the survey. https://voteforpolicies.org.uk/survey/1/select-issues

THE STAGNATION OF SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES. ( POST BREXIT ANXIETY ELIXIR!)

Sunday, 26 June 2016

WILLIAM GOODWIN, SHELLY AND THE STAGNATION OF SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES. ( POST BREXIT ANXIETY ELIXIR!)

William Goodwin, Shelly and the stagnation of Social technologies. ( Post Brexit anxiety elixir!)

Paul Foot wrote this wonderful piece in the International Socialist review I read it several years ago and in all the furore of Post-Brexit Angst, I revisited it today.  http://www.isreview.org/issues/46/shelley.shtml

Reading the notes this reprinted article from Godwin’s enquirer took my eye. One always finds so much more to read. Please take some time if you have any when you are done to, visit my own Epic Poem, Usury Hells Fuel and Mans oppressor.

http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2016/02/usury-hells-fuel-and-mans-oppressor.html 

and more of my own poetry can be found at this link.

Percy Bysshe Shelley 1813

Queen Mab

A Philosophical Poem (in 9 parts)V. Page 37.

hence it follows,
that, to subject the labouring classes to unnecessary labour,
is wantonly depriving them of any opportunities of intellectual
Improvement; and that the rich are heaping up for
their own mischief the disease, lassitude, and ennui by
which their existence is rendered an intolerable burthen.

true pension-list is the rent-roll of the landed proprietors:
they demand from us but a slender portion of industry. If
wealth is a power usurped by the few, to compel the many
to labour for their benefit. The laws which support this
system derive their force from the ignorance and credulity
of its victims: they are the result of a conspiracy of the
few against the many, who are themselves obliged to
purchase this pre-eminence by the loss of all real comfort.

The commodities that substantially contribute to the sub-
sistence of the human species form a very short catalogue,
these only were produced, and sufficiently produced, the
life, may be devoted to the cultivation of the understanding,
species of man would be continued.

SAME OLD TORIES SAME OLD NEO-LIBERALISM.THEY ARE NOT CONSERVATIVES!

 


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succession event buzz hegemony had been
10:49
transferred and what ajp taylor called
10:52
the war of the british succession was
10:56
won convincingly by the united states
10:58
and it was in that idealistic post-war
11:03
period
11:04
that on either side of the Atlantic
11:07
there were attempts to build
11:09
institutions that could answer these
11:11
nagging questions of nations and
11:14
nationalism a group of European
11:19
countries responded to an instinct deep
11:22
in the history of the continent and
11:25
launched a project for a federal system
11:28
of government with a single court a
11:30
single legal system and of course a
11:33
customs union modeled on the sovereign
11:36
that was the precursor to a unified
11:38
German state it would be fair to say
11:41
that Britain and America had a different
11:46
approach and together they sought to
11:49
create a new system based not on power
11:53
not on centralized and federal more
11:56
making but on rules embodied by
11:59
genuinely global institutions alongside
12:03
our American ally we were present at the
12:06
creation of the United Nations of the UN
12:09
Charter on data of the of NATO and later
12:13
of the Helsinki final acts and of course
12:16
Europe and North America ultimately
12:19
worked together to build this new world
12:21
we stood together with our West European
12:25
allies throughout the Cold War and when
12:30
that Cold War ended 26 years ago we
12:34
hoped that our rules-based liberal order
12:38
would catch on and embrace the whole
12:41
world and alas that vision has not
12:45
rarely come to pass and instead the
12:47
great attempt at a post-war liberal
12:50
settlement is under unprecedented strain
12:53
the hard reality is that other nations
12:57
were not swept along by the euphoria
13:00
that I remember so well many of you
13:04
remember and there is a whole region of
13:08
the world the Middle East where the
13:09
nation-state system is itself in peril
13:12
and where we are struggling against
13:15
non-state actors who view the very
13:17
concept
13:17
of a global liberal order with contempt

13:21
http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2016/09/syria-cui-bono-incitatus-boris-johnson.html

Quiggleys words.p.232 tragedy and Hope.´´but criticism should have been directed rather at the hypocrisy and lackof realism in the ideals of the wartime propaganda and at the lack of honesty of the chief negotiators in carrying on the pretense that these ideals were still in effect while they violated them daily, and necessarily violated them. The settlements were clearly made by secret negotiations, by the Great Powers exclusively, and by power politics. They had to be. No settlements could ever have been made on any other bases. The failure of the chief negotiators (at least the Anglo-Americans) to admit this is regrettable, but behind theirreluctance to admit it is the even more regrettable fact that the lack of political experience and political education of the American and English electorates made it dangerous for the negotiators to admit the facts of life in international political relationships.”

 

Boris almost had me at the start I thought he was being sincere but fresh off the 350 million quid a week for the NHS wheeze, post-Brexit &; plastered all over the side of a Bus. And given the scant acquaintance old Bozzer seems to have with telling the truth, I remained unhooked but admit almost lured. But then the tell, the giveaway, everything was,´´especially the blame of the Assad regime´´, who could possibly see them as the part of any solution? They alone responsible for the ´´greater part of the 400,000 deaths in Syria” and on and on he went with his own curious set of facts, and with an awed equine mastication of the acronym UNGA, after all, Caligula had done much the same and a borrowed fact here and there, who could possibly notice? So there dear reader we must depart the scene in the marbled atria of the Colonnades of the United nations and its most lauded Security Council with UNGA foremost in our hearts and minds. Let us envision bent over braced and head firmly in the sand Boris again, in position, to Expose his thinking parts. As Caligula Whips his Incitatus onwards. Gimp masks instead of Blinkers and much feasting on porcine fare, in best Bullingdon and Skull and Bones style. Perhaps they have both had a late night down the temple playing the biscuit game, beloved of posh Lads in posh schools and posher clubs. They had taken the seasons biscuit for scraping the bottom of the barrel after all.
Zhou Xiaochuan: Reform the international monetary system
Essay by Dr Zhou Xiaochuan, Governor of the People’s Bank of China, 23 March 2009.
* * *
The outbreak of the current crisis and its spillover in the world have confronted us with a
long-existing but still unanswered question, i.e., what kind of international reserve currency
do we need to secure global financial stability and facilitate world economic growth, which
was one of the purposes for establishing the IMF? There were various institutional
arrangements in an attempt to find a solution, including the Silver Standard, the Gold
Standard, the Gold Exchange Standard and the Bretton Woods system. The above question,
however, as the ongoing financial crisis demonstrates, is far from being solved, and has
become even more severe due to the inherent weaknesses of the current international
monetary system.
Theoretically, an international reserve currency should first be anchored to a stable
benchmark and issued according to a clear set of rules, therefore to ensure orderly supply;
second, its supply should be flexible enough to allow timely adjustment according to the
changing demand; third, such adjustments should be disconnected from economic conditions
and sovereign interests of any single country. The acceptance of credit-based national
currencies as major international reserve currencies, as is the case in the current system, is
a rare special case in history. The crisis again calls for creative reform of the existing
international monetary system towards an international reserve currency with a stable value,
rule-based issuance and manageable supply, so as to achieve the objective of safeguarding
global economic and financial stability.
I. The outbreak of the crisis and its spillover to the entire world reflect the
inherent vulnerabilities and systemic risks in the existing international
monetary system.
Issuing countries of reserve currencies are constantly confronted with the dilemma between
achieving their domestic monetary policy goals and meeting other countries’ demand for
reserve currencies. On the one hand, the monetary authorities cannot simply focus on
domestic goals without carrying out their international responsibilities; on the other hand,
they cannot pursue different domestic and international objectives at the same time. They
may either fail to adequately meet the demand of a growing global economy for liquidity as
they try to ease inflation pressures at home, or create excess liquidity in the global markets
by overly stimulating domestic demand. The Triffin Dilemma, i.e., the issuing countries of
reserve currencies cannot maintain the value of the reserve currencies while providing
liquidity to the world, still exists.
When a national currency is used in pricing primary commodities, trade settlements and is
adopted as a reserve currency globally, efforts of the monetary authority issuing such a
currency to address its economic imbalances by adjusting exchange rate would be made in
vain, as its currency serves as a benchmark for many other currencies. While benefiting from
a widely accepted reserve currency, the globalization also suffers from the flaws of such a
system. The frequency and increasing intensity of financial crises following the collapse of
the Bretton Woods system suggests the costs of such a system to the world may have
exceeded its benefits. The price is becoming increasingly higher, not only for the users, but
also for the issuers of the reserve currencies. Although crisis may not necessarily be an
intended result of the issuing authorities, it is an inevitable outcome of the institutional flaws.
BIS Review 41/2009 1
II. The desirable goal of reforming the international monetary system, therefore,
is to create an international reserve currency that is disconnected from
individual nations and is able to remain stable in the long run, thus removing
the inherent deficiencies caused by using credit-based national currencies.
1. Though the super-sovereign reserve currency has long since been proposed, yet no
substantive progress has been achieved to date. Back in the 1940s, Keynes had
already proposed to introduce an international currency unit named “Bancor”, based
on the value of 30 representative commodities. Unfortunately, the proposal was not
accepted. The collapse of the Bretton Woods system, which was based on the
White approach, indicates that the Keynesian approach may have been more
farsighted. The IMF also created the SDR in 1969, when the defects of the Bretton
Woods system initially emerged, to mitigate the inherent risks sovereign reserve
currencies caused. Yet, the role of the SDR has not been put into full play due to
limitations on its allocation and the scope of its uses. However, it serves as the light
in the tunnel for the reform of the international monetary system.
2. A super-sovereign reserve currency not only eliminates the inherent risks of creditbased
sovereign currency, but also makes it possible to manage global liquidity. A
super-sovereign reserve currency managed by a global institution could be used to
both create and control the global liquidity. And when a country’s currency is no
longer used as the yardstick for global trade and as the benchmark for other
currencies, the exchange rate policy of the country would be far more effective in
adjusting economic imbalances. This will significantly reduce the risks of a future
crisis and enhance crisis management capability.
III. The reform should be guided by a grand vision and begin with specific
deliverables. It should be a gradual process that yields win-win results for all
The reestablishment of a new and widely accepted reserve currency with a stable valuation
benchmark may take a long time. The creation of an international currency unit, based on the
Keynesian proposal, is a bold initiative that requires extraordinary political vision and
courage. In the short run, the international community, particularly the IMF, should at least
recognize and face up to the risks resulting from the existing system, conduct regular
monitoring and assessment and issue timely early warnings.
Special consideration should be given to giving the SDR a greater role. The SDR has the
features and potential to act as a super-sovereign reserve currency. Moreover, an increase
in SDR allocation would help the Fund address its resources problem and the difficulties in
the voice and representation reform. Therefore, efforts should be made to push forward a
SDR allocation. This will require political cooperation among member countries. Specifically,
the Fourth Amendment to the Articles of Agreement and relevant resolution on SDR
allocation proposed in 1997 should be approved as soon as possible so that members joined
the Fund after 1981 could also share the benefits of the SDR. On the basis of this,
considerations could be given to further increase SDR allocation.
The scope of using the SDR should be broadened, so as to enable it to fully satisfy the
member countries’ demand for a reserve currency.
Set up a settlement system between the SDR and other currencies. Therefore, the SDR,
which is now only used between governments and international institutions, could become a
widely accepted means of payment in international trade and financial transactions.
Actively promote the use of the SDR in international trade, commodities pricing, investment
and corporate book-keeping. This will help enhance the role of the SDR, and will effectively
reduce the fluctuation of prices of assets denominated in national currencies and related
risks.
2 BIS Review 41/2009
Create financial assets denominated in the SDR to increase its appeal. The introduction of
SDR-denominated securities, which is being studied by the IMF, will be a good start.
Further improve the valuation and allocation of the SDR. The basket of currencies forming
the basis for SDR valuation should be expanded to include currencies of all major
economies, and the GDP may also be included as a weight. The allocation of the SDR can
be shifted from a purely calculation-based system to a system backed by real assets, such
as a reserve pool, to further boost market confidence in its value.
IV. Entrusting part of the member countries’ reserve to the centralized
management of the IMF will not only enhance the international community’s
ability to address the crisis and maintain the stability of the international
monetary and financial system, but also significantly strengthen the role of
the SDR.
1. Compared with separate management of reserves by individual countries, the
centralized management of part of the global reserve by a trustworthy international
institution with a reasonable return to encourage participation will be more effective
in deterring speculation and stabilizing financial markets. The participating countries
can also save some reserve for domestic development and economic growth. With
its universal membership, its unique mandate of maintaining monetary and financial
stability, and as an international “supervisor” on the macroeconomic policies of its
member countries, the IMF, equipped with its expertise, is endowed with a natural
advantage to act as the manager of its member countries’ reserves.
2. The centralized management of its member countries’ reserves by the Fund will be
an effective measure to promote a greater role of the SDR as a reserve currency. To
achieve this, the IMF can set up an open-ended SDR-denominated fund based on
the market practice, allowing subscription and redemption in the existing reserve
currencies by various investors as desired. This arrangement will not only promote
the development of SDR-denominated assets, but will also partially allow
management of the liquidity in the form of the existing reserve currencies. It can
even lay a foundation for increasing SDR allocation to gradually replace existing
reserve currencies with the SDR.

BIS Working Papers No 444 Reforming the international monetary system in the 1970s and 2000s: would an SDR substitution account have worked? by Robert N McCauley and Catherine R Schenk Monetary and Economic Department March 2014

TWO YEARS, A PARADIGM SHIFT IN POLITICS

 


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http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2015/08/supercompetent-democracies-web.html

Gaian Democracies: Redefining Globalisation People-Power

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In this Schumacher Briefing, Roy Madron and John Jopling argue that the main purpose of our Western democracies is to satisfy the needs of a global debt-money system through the pursuit of economic growth. This ‘Global Monetocracy’ is a hugely powerful system that is imposing social injustice, economic incompetence and ecological disaster on the human family. Madron and Jopling make the case for a very different system of globalisation. A global network of Gaian Democracies could achieve very different aims. The concepts, insights and tools of Gaian Democracy have already been used to successfully reconfigure organisations and communities in very tough situations. And that they provide the means by which states, communities and people from all walks of life could generate the collective power, both to overcome the stranglehold of the Global Monetocracy and to co-create the just and sustainable societies that the human family desperately needs. (less)

 

What does the historical record suggest about the current proposals to reform the international monetary system? 1 Catherine R. Schenk University of Glasgow

http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_139474_en.pdf

 

At the end of the Second World War, it was clear that the US dollar would be the dominant international currency in any global economic reconfiguration, and this became the core of the Bretton Woods system. Most rich countries pegged their currencies to the USD, while the US alone valued its currency directly in gold. Nevertheless, there continued to be a role for a secondary international currency to be used as a reserve asset, anchor currency and as a currency of settlement because the supply of USD assets and gold was restricted in the immediate post-war period by US balance of payments surpluses. The system thus assumed that more than one major reserve currency could operate at the same time over a prolonged period. In the 1950s the sterling area (35 countries and colonies pegged to sterling and holding primarily sterling reserves) accounted for half of world trade and sterling accounted for over half of world foreign exchange reserves. In the early post-war years, this share was even higher – the IMF estimated that official sterling reserves, excluding those held by colonies, were four times the value of official USD reserves and that by 1947 sterling accounted for about 87% of global foreign exchange reserves.

Nowadays, to reduce the USD share of global reserves would require a huge amount
of any new reserve asset: even after recent allocations SDRs now comprise only about
4% of total international reserves. Proposals to supplement rather than replace
existing reserves require the SDR to be as attractive as USD in terms of liquidity,
value and returns, but this poses a huge burden on the USA if they have to finance this
through a liability to the Fund. Holders of SDRs must have confidence in their
liquidity (marketability, acceptability by all countries, convertibility to USD as well
as other currencies) that will require a huge multilateral commitment to develop the
market for SDR. The C20 of the 1970s also provides lessons for the process of
reform. There was a clear trade-off between efficiency in policy-making and the
breadth required for legitimacy of any emerging proposals. Similar challenges will
affect the Group of 20 as it adopts more policy-making responsibilities. In the 1970s,
reform proposals were over-run by market solutions that reduced the need for
precautionary reserves. Rather than focusing on how to manage such huge imbalances
today, the emphasis might instead be on how to reduce the incidence of (or provide
other forms of insurance for) the sudden stops that encourage the accumulation of
owned reserves.

http://online.sfsu.edu/jgmoss/PDF/635_pdf/No_78_TheDollarDilemmaBarryFichengreen.pdf

meet the new boss

By process of elimination, it is clear that the dollar will remain the
principal form of international reserves well into the future. It will not
be as dominant as in the past, for the same reasons that the United
States will not be as dominant economically as it once was. In the
short run, the euro will gain market share, especially in and around
Europe. In the longer run, the renminbi’s role will also grow, especially
in Asia. But for as far as one can see clearly into the future, the dollar
will remain first among equals.
The Dollar Dilemma
foreign affairs . September / October 2009 [67

http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2017/04/mc-namara-tillerson-woods-world-bank.html

The Oligarchy was firmly secured by the Bankers in the 2008 ´´Crash´´. The Petrodollar sword of Damocles has haunted every US president since Gerald Ford and it is clear from published documents and correspondence that the Monetary System and Banking have been elevated to an importance above democracy and Laws. President Trump would have had some idea of the generality of the question as many do but only those who put on the shoes of A president or World leader will be made aware of the full picture, the rest of us can only guess as to what exactly is causing the successive apparent loss of all humanity and reason when office is assumed ( I must confess I felt this more acutely when it happened to Obama) . I have been reading the Pearson and Brandt Commission reports the past few days following up on a reference to the Committee of Twenty in the 1973 Bilderberg Minutes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/Pearson_Commission_on…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandt_Report the follow up to the Brandt report is a report called the Brandt Equation.

The Brandt Equation was written by this Guy James Quilligan http://wiki.p2pfoundation.net/James_Quilligan
Who´s work is fascinating and I will be reading more of his work.
This paper of Quilligans is very good although the Language is too Jargony for it to truly blossom and gain traction ( in my opinion, at any rate, the style does not resonate with me)) in a wider readership, this is a shame.
http://www.kosmosjournal.org/…/the-commons-and-integral…

The Pearson Commission on International Development investigated the effectiveness of the World Bank’s development assistance in the 20 years to 1968 and made recommendations for future operation of the organization.
EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG

http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2017/03/brexit-timeline-from-brexitschmexit-to.html

My own intentions in this reconnoiter over the past 15 months Brexit scribblings are not of course purely altruistic. My Novel ´The Conquest of Dough has been waiting for the Full Stop of the Trump presidency, the inauguration was a key event the other will be the debt ceiling scheduled some time in June? when the 20 Trillion dollar of debt mark is hit and that silly old charade of the ´´Fiscal Cliff++ will undoubtedly be played again, to my own yawns and the Corporate Medials squeals of indignation no doubt.

Le Pens designs on La Belle Francais and Mr Wilders intrigue with the Electorate of the Netherlands are of course all set to provide some more drama in the Affairs of our Lovely Elysium. But the page of history has already turned and the Paradigm

https://www.indabamusic.com/opportunities/hertz-movin-music-original-indie-song-contest/submissions/3283f056-a31c-11e2-b556-12313d026137

 

CHAMPAGNE SOCIALISTS FOR CORBYN.

— Roger Glyndwr Lewis (@RogerGLewis) August 9, 2016

The Cutting is from my press cutting book, I am one of the fortunate ones. I received a grant aided education in Comprehensive, and for A levels at the Colchester Institute where I went back to take my A Levels after leaving home and having dropped out of the sixth form. Incidentally one of my A Level Law Lecturers was Mike O´Brien a Junior Home office minister in the naughties New Labour Government, but at that time 1982, was a Law Lecturer at The Colchester Institute. But that’s another story.

I went to South Bank poly and studied one of the most Conservative subjects you can, Estate Management majoring in Valuation. I am a trained Neo-Liberal Capitalist but here’s the thing I am a life Long Socialist. I know that my opportunities in Life and my most prized possession, My education, are owed to the sweat blood and tears of my Grand Parents generation in the first half of the 20th Century and largely down to the Labour Government of 1946 that bequeathed to us the NHS, National Insurance and the Education act.
I made good use of my education in one of the most conservative of professions qualifying as a chartered surveyor, becoming a successful property consultant and Estate Agent and also a Property developer. I am grateful for the luck I had but mostly acknowledge and am thankful for the opportunities that the state education system allowed me to pursue. I see those opportunities are diminishing where they still exist today, for people of similar backgrounds and education opportunities as the younger me. My ex-wife was the same she became a successful commercial lawyer. We both always voted labour, here’s a blog about the Elections we sat through the night to ultimate disappointment throughout the Thatcher years.
When I see Tom Watson insulting comrades who still fight to maintain opportunities to benefit people like me who go on to uncomplainingly pay their taxes when they meet with success. We should always remember that all success is achieved stood on the shoulders of Giants, most of who went and still go un-rewarded. Those selfless and unacknowledged heroes and heroines that still did and still do what they do so that others will not have to and did not have to. Well, when I hear Watson and others criticise those who I thank and always remember made a sacrifice for me and others.We have a commitment always to pay back and not kick away the ladder.  I get Angry and not a little confused

0046702273052
skype: rogerglewis
Skype telephone number +46406931188
Portfolio of on line Profiles( Go on be Nosy ) CLICK HERE PLEASE
#ConquestofDough

Winston Chomsky Language Stories Signs Symbols

Signs Symbols Stories Language.

Winston/Chomsky.( MIT)

Understanding in our minds and what we express through communication in language are not systems designed to compliment each other . This leads to confusions and the disjoint can be manipulated against our own best interests.

I have been pondering lately whether in Sweden a country that uses a language with 41,000 words; (approx.)

http://reference.yourdictionary.com/o…

One way to get an estimate of the number of words in the Swedish language is to look at a dictionary. The online Woxikon dictionary lists over 41,000 Swedish words. It is interesting to note that more words started with “s” than any other, by far, and the least number of words started with “q” and “x.” This is only a rough estimate of the number of words in the Swedish language.

http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/h…

The Second Edition of the 20-volume Oxford English Dictionary contains full entries for 171,476 words in current use, and 47,156 obsolete words. To this may be added around 9,500derivative words included as subentries. Over half of these words are nouns, about a quarter adjectives, and about a seventh verbs; the rest is made up of exclamations, conjunctions, prepositions, suffixes, etc. And these figures don’t take account of entries with senses for different word classes (such as noun and adjective).

I do wonder if with less words Swedes have more common stories and communicate their shared understanding at a more sub-concious level than the attempts at precision, English speaking nations make inevitably ending in a wider opportunity for misundertanding the points being made by the other person?

The above notions arise from my watching a film celebrating MIT’s Artificial Intelligence department and two themes developed by Professors Chomsky and Winston on the apparatus used for Language and the idea of Story Telling in communication and learning being the re awakening of Latent understanding.

Are we bound more by our shared stories than by our Understanding of being. I would say yes of course we are we understand very little but actually share a common conditioned understanding of our stories. Politicians call them narratives, Ad men ‘keep on message’. Meme’s, Buzz words, Soundbites the unquestioned Facts of life communicated in Language often against our instinctive better natures.

Reference these quotes at the links here.

letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2013_04_01_archive.html

Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language.

Intuition and concepts constitute… the elements of all our knowledge, so that neither concepts without an intuition in some way corresponding to them, nor intuition without concepts, can yield knowledge.

The oldest, shortest words – ‘yes’ and ‘no’ – are those which require the most thought.

We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.

In words are seen the state of mind and character and disposition of the speaker.

The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance.

The metaphor of language and prison:

“Whorf himself, and some of his followers, have suggested that we live in a kind of intellectual prison, a prison formed by the structural rules of our language. I am prepared to accept this metaphor, though I have to add to it that it is an odd prison as we are normally unaware of being imprisoned. We may become aware of it through culture clash. But then, this very awareness allows us to break the prison. If we try hard enough, we can transcend our prison by studying the new language and by comparing it with our own.”

Widening the prison:

“Admittedly, the result will be a new prison. But it will be a much larger and wider prison. And again, we will not suffer from it. Or rather, whenever we do suffer from it, we are free to examine it critically, and thus to break out again into a still wider prison.”

Prisons as Frameworks:

“The prisons are the frameworks. And those who do not like prisons will be opposed to the myth of the framework. They will welcome a discussion with a partner who comes from another world, from another framework, for it gives them an opportunity to discover their so far unfelt chains, to break these chains, and thus to transcend themselves. But this breaking of one’s prison is clearly not a matter of routine: it can only be the result of a critical effort and of a creative effort.”

https://web.archive.org/web/20130202092402/http://leakygrammar.net/2012/07/15/karl-popper-breaking-out-of-the-prison-of-language/
http://leakygrammar.net/2012/07/15/ka…

I quote others only in order the better to express myself.

Lastly get emotionally connected to your story so you can deliver it, you know, if you can’t deliver the emotions to your script there’s no point to your story. Story is the key. 
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Robert Redford quotes

Blake, Europe a Prophecy, Brexit or Europe? According to William Blake.

 

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. His so-called prophetic works were said by 20th century critic Northrop Frye to form “what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language”.[2] His visual artistry led 21st-century critic Jonathan Jones to proclaim him “far and away the greatest artist Britain has ever produced”.[3] In 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in the BBC’s poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.[4] Although he lived in London his entire life (except for three years spent in Felpham),[5] he produced a diverse and symbolically rich œuvre, which embraced the imagination as “the body of God”[6] or “human existence itself”.[7]

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William Blake’s mythology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The prophetic books of the English poet and artist William Blake contain a rich invented mythology (mythopoeia), in which Blake worked to encode his revolutionary spiritual and political ideas into a prophecy for a new age. This desire to recreate the cosmos is the heart of his work and his psychology. His myths often described the struggle between enlightenment and free love on the one hand, and restrictive education and morals on the other.

Sources[edit]

Among Blake’s inspirations were John Milton‘s Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, the visions of Emanuel Swedenborg and the near-cabalistic writings of Jakob Böhme. Blake’s vision went further, in that he not only expanded on the world of Biblical revelation, but sought to transcend it by fusion with his own interpretations of druidism and paganism.

The Fall of Albion[edit]

The relationship of the four Zoas, as depicted by Blake in Milton a Poem

The longest elaboration of this private myth-cycle was also his longest poem, The Four Zoas: The Death and Judgment of Albion The Ancient Man, written in the late 1790s but left in manuscript form at the time of his death. In this work, Blake traces the fall of Albion, who was “originally fourfold but was self-divided”.[1]This theme was revisited later, more definitively but perhaps less directly, in his other epic prophetic works, Milton a Poem and Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion.
The parts into which Albion is divided are the four Zoas:
  • Tharmas: representing instinct and strength.
  • Urizen: reason, tradition; a cruel god resembling the Gnostic Demiurge.
  • Luvah: love, passion and emotive faculties; a Christ-like figure, also known as Orc in his most amorous and rebellious form.
  • Urthona, also known as Los: inspiration and the imagination.
The Blake pantheon also includes feminine emanations that have separated from an integrated male being, as Eve separated from Adam:
  • The maternal Enion is an emanation from Tharmas.
  • The celestial Ahania is an emanation from Urizen.
  • The seductive Vala is an emanation from Luvah.
  • The musical Enitharmon is an emanation from Los (Urthona).
The fall of Albion and his division into the Zoas and their emanations are also the central themes of Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion.
Rintrah first appears in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, personifying revolutionary wrath. He is later grouped together with other spirits of rebellion in The Vision of the Daughters of Albion:
  • The loud and lustful Bromion.
  • The “mild and piteous” Palamabron, son of Enitharmon and Los (also appears in Milton).
  • The tortured mercenary Theotormon.

The mythology and the prophetic books[edit]

Scholarship on Blake has not recovered a “perfected” version of Blake’s myth. The characters in it have to be treated more like a repertory company, capable of dramatising his ideas (which changed, over two decades). On the other hand, the psychological roots of his work have been revealed, and are now much more accessible (with study) than they were a century ago.
America a Prophecy is also one of the “prophetic works”. Here, the “soft soul” of America appears as Oothoon.
Other works concerning this pantheon:

Notes and references[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Watershed Online Retrieved on 2008-08-29

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Reading By Roger Lewis.

“My first and lasting reaction to your poems was, Wonderful. Here is a poet who can engage with the pressing and vital concerns of our times. As did Blake in his time. While others were still trilling away about rural idylls and flute playing shepherds Blake took those forms and images and confronted the brutalities of his age with an art renewed. In his own way, Roger is doing the same.”

David Malone, Film Maker Author and writer of the Golem xiv blog

 

https://longhairedmusings.wordpress.com/2017/03/11/poetry-retrospective-introduced-by-david-malone-golem-xiv/

Knitted Yoghurt with added preservatives and e numbers, Style valued over substance. Now is not a time for Soundbites. #Corbyn4PM

Roger Lewis Kat Boettge Hi Kat, Vince Cable is quoted on the BBC today that Lib Dems would not form a coalition with Labour under Jeremy Corbyn. Progressive Alliance or Left Alliance is too imprecise to actually mean anything. There is Left and right within Neo-Liberalism, which excludes anything but Large Scale Global Market Capitalism. Then there is the Old Left Right paradigm which is almost a separate dimension to the “TINA”( There is no Alternative ) Neo-Liberalism of the past 40 years. I reject the Green Party under the present leadership, what happened in Richmond on Thames was the last chance I felt minded to give the highly suspect rise of the Joint Leader coronation, sullied (now with added Oakeshott money) and neoliberal sell out and Lib Dem coalition overtures. (The LIB Dems are not progressive, neither are they Left, they are Liberal, which is a clue to their DNA which is substantially Neo-Liberal. 
Whether the GP is redeemable will largely for me rest upon the manifesto, the position vis Lib Dems and Brexit though has not instilled optimism in me that the Greens will attain the sort of relevance they had in 2015 under Natalie Bennet, for me Natalie is much superior to the present Leadership Intellectually and in terms of Political Authenticity, I do not find those qualities in either Caroline or Jonathan both of who are far to Toney and Dave media soundbite talking points presidential friendly, for me they are Knitted Yoghurt with added preservatives and e numbers, Style valued over substance, the British Voting public will see that and reject it. Corbyn stands a much better chance if he does not sell out or add E numbers and Tim Nice but dim market friendly media tosh to his message.
I really regret the Karaoke Turn in Green Politics but with any luck, there will be a hung parliament and a coalition formed which necessitates a PR voting system to glue together the last time that happened the vote was blown. That does not surprise me the GP is a shambles messaging-wise and with an authentic message it matters less but with the new E numbered added preservative Greens 

I´m afraid amateur night levels of sophistry just will not cut through.

http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/…/politics…

Roger Lewis
Roger Lewishttp://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/…/champagn…

#Champagnesocialist #Bonviveurs4Corbyn #PoshBoys4Corbyn #Socialismcanbe4Toffs2 

The second sense of Piety also applies to the ´´Now is not a time for Soundbites, spin doctored crocodile tears, never better demonstrated than by One Anthony Charles Lynton Blair.

http://letthemconfectsweeterlies.blogspot.se/2016/07/who-ate-all-pietiesor-now-is-not-time.html

 ”It’s not a day for soundbites really erm we can leave those at home , I feel the hand of history upon our shoulder.in respect of this, I really do.”



 So this is the second sense the Who ate all the pieties sense. piety ˈpʌɪəti/Submit noun the quality of being religious or reverent. “acts of piety and charity” synonyms: devoutness, devotion, piousness, religiousness, religion, holiness, godliness, sanctity, sanctitude, saintliness, devotion to God, veneration, reverence, faith, religious duty, spirituality, sacredness, religious zeal, fervour, pietism, religiosity “the piety of a saint”